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Byzantine Greek Fire Grenade, 9th/10th C
Greek Fire was one of the most significant military inventions in history and its use saved the Byzantine Empire for centuries from Arab attacks. The exact formula for this flammable liquid remains a secret to this day. Purportedly invented in the 7th C by Kallinikos of Heliopolis, a Jewish architect who fled Syria after an Arab attack on his home city and later settled in Constantinople, he also invented the complex system which propelled the liquid across long distances. It was first used at sea where it was particularly effective against wooden ships, as it could not be put out by water. It was later delivered via clay grenades, either by hand or by launching with a catapult. This example is a hollow clay vessel with a barrel-shaped body, domed top, and conical base, the body with a latticework design; knob to the upper face to facilitate filling and the addition of a wick. Larger than most examples, weighing 3 pounds 10 ounces, approximately 7" long and 6" diameter. Included is a display stand and certificate of authenticity.
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